The Mongol Empire (in his languages: 元朝、げんちょう；蒙古帝国、もうこていこく) and Yekhe Mongol Ulus (ᠶᠡᠺᠡ ᠮᠣᠨᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ, Great Mongol Ulus, Ulus means State) is the main antagonistic force in Ghost of Tsushima. It's the biggest power of continental Asia, which also conquered most of territories in eastern Europe. At 13th century they are at the top of expansion, controlling several lands and the Great Khan (supreme monarch of all Empire) is Kublai Khan, residing in Khanbaliq or Dadu (now Beijing in People's Republic of China).
By the time of the year 1274 Mongol Empire or just simply the Mongols have declared war against Japan. They have sent a force led by Khotun Khan to invade the archipelago. At first they invaded small island between Korean Peninsula and Kyushu, one of main islands, known as Tsushima. The samurai Jin Sakai must use his knowledge and develop tactics of the Ghost to defeat them. Many of those are dishonorable for samurai codex.
- 1 History
- 2 Members
- 3 Culture
- 4 Territories (by modern times)
- 5 Armed forces
- 6 Trivia
- 7 Videos
- 8 Gallery
- 9 References
History[edit | edit source]
Before Ghost of Tsushima[edit | edit source]
Great Mongol Ulus was founded by legendary chief known nowadays as Genghis Khan, Kublai's grandfather. This leader, known originally as Temüjin, started to unite then hostile towards each other tribes. Those nomadic tribes named themselves as e.g. Khamag, Tatar, Khereid or Merkit. Genghis Khan was a chief of the first one. In next years he organised Great Kurultai (council of all khans, generals and other important people) in 1206, at which he declared birth of Mongol Empire with Karakorum as his capital city. After short civil war he started to conquer his neighbours.
In the year 1207 he started to conquer one of Chinese Kingdoms: Western Xia. After that he started to capture several Siberian territories. With the beginning of 1211 he managed to expand empire with successful wars against Jin and until 1220 he gained Qara Khitai and Kwarazm in Central Asia. He died at the year 1226, when his army conquered Cumans and attacked Volga Bulgaria and India.
Two years after his death Kurultai choose Ögedei Khan, Genghis' son as new ruler. Until his death in 1241 they conquered many new states, like those at Caucasus Mountains, in Levant and Anatolia, also captured Persia and Tibet. With this they started to established protectorate over Rus and Georgia states. After Ögedei Kublai was choose new supreme leader of Great Mongolian Ulus at the year 1260.
Invasion at Tsushima[edit | edit source]
By the year 1274 Mongol Empire managed campaigns in Palestine, Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Thrace, Serbia, Latin Empire, Armenia, Georgia, Holy Roman Empire, Syria and Alamut at the western borders, capturing territories of Chinese Song imperial dynasty and Goryeo, also attacking Vietnam, India and Sakhalin. In 1271, Kublai decided to change the capital city of the empire Khanbaliq in China. He also cut Great Ulus into 4 Uluses - empires in Mongol Empire ruled by local monarchs. Those Uluses are called Great Chinese (China, Korea and Mongolia), Golden Horde (Europe), Ilkhanate (Persia and whole Middle East) and Chagatai Khanate (Central Asia).
Although Kublai offered peace with Japan in exchange demanding to kneel before his power and live as protectorate, the Emperor and Shogun chose war with him. Kublai sent an army of nearly 30 thousand soldiers from many different nations, like Goryeo, China, Mongolia, Kwarazm and Persia; on 800 warships, led by his cousin Khotun, who studied their culture. Although the samurai bravely fought at Komoda Beach they were defeated by the Mongol's powerful cavalry, hwachas, navy artillery and gunpowder. Slaughtered with the exception of jito Shimura, who became a prisoner and Jin Sakai, rescued by local thief Yuna they were just the beginning. Before the end of Sakai's rehabilitation, they conquered nearly the whole of Tsushima.
When Sakai gained support from unusual people like Sensei Ishikawa or Masako Adachi, he became a leader of Tsushima's resistance, destroying several Mongol camps and taking back Castle Kaneda and Shimura. However, he earned the ire of several prominent samurai, including his uncle Shimura and the Shogun himself, for applying dishonorable tactics in combat. In the end, Khotun Khan was slain in port by Jin and the Mongol Army was forced to retreat back to Goryeo in full chaos, without its leader and losing most of their fleet in the typhoon.
Members[edit | edit source]
Leadership[edit | edit source]
- Genghis Khan † - first Mongol Emperor. He united tribes and established at Great Kurultai in the year 1206 Mongol Empire. 20 years later he died, when empire conquered territories from Caspian Sea to Yellow Sea. He was the grandfather of Kublai and Khotun.
- Kublai Khan - third Mongol Emperor, Great Khan of Mongol Empire from 1260. He's the grandson of Genghis Khan.
Army[edit | edit source]
- Khotun Khan † - General of Tsushima invading forces, Khan. He's the grandson of Genghis Khan and cousin of Kublai Khan. Killed by Jin during last days of Tsushima invasion.
- Temuge † - General. He led forces against Yarikawa. Brutally killed by Jin Sakai, what started his legend as Ghost of Tsushima.
- Bartu † - General. He led one of Mongol camps. Killed by Jin in duel.
- Dogshin † - General. He led one of Mongol camps. Killed by Jin in duel.
- Altan † - Warlord. He terrorized Otsuna. Killed by Yuna and Jin.
- Harunori † - Warlord. Leader of Azamo Bay invasion forces. Killed by Jin in duel.
- Dogar † - Warlord. He lied Mongols in attack at Ogawa Dojo. Killed by Jin in duel.
Turncoats[edit | edit source]
- Ryuzo † - Leader of the Straw Hats, former Jin's friend. He betrayed in order to have change for survival and became samurai, but eventually tried to change side after Taka's death. Killed by Jin after he poisoned Mongols at Castle Shimura.
- Tomoe - former sensei Ishikawa's student. She was forced to collaboration in order to safe people, but she was betrayed and eventually she killed with help of lord Sakai and his own master all Mongols who were trained by her.
Culture[edit | edit source]
Mongol Empire was very multicultural - every conquered state had different culture. Generally his main culture was focused over Mongol tribes, whose nomadic lifestyle and high respect towards horses gave them possibility for creating one of the most mobile army in history. At western territories Mongols conquered Rus States, thus people living there are Europeans, while at south and center population is mostly Persian and Turkish. At north ruling shamanistic tribes and at east Mongols conquered Chinese, Koreans and other nations. National belief of Mongol Empire is shamanism, but other religions very popular there are Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Chinese beliefs. All of them are tolerated by leaders.
Invading forces were mostly from Great Chinese Ulus or Great Chinese Khanate. Officers and nobility were mostly from Mongol native territories, while typical soldiers arrived also Jurchens, Chinese and Koreans. There is a probability, that during invasion of Tsushima other Uluses sent their warriors for supreme monarch.
Language[edit | edit source]
The ruling khans of the Mongol Empire speak the Mongolian language, specifically Middle Mongol (13th and 14th century). It was a Mongol common language, originating from Genghis Khan's home region of Northeastern Mongolia. Over time, it diversified into several Mongolic languages, still spoken today across Eurasia. As the Mongol Empire was diverse, many languages were used among the various ethnicities and common tongue, especially in the army. The most-used languages in Mongol army at Tsushima invasion were Mongolian, Han Chinese, Persian, and Turkish.
Territories (by modern times)[edit | edit source]
Great Khanate (Yuan)[edit | edit source]
- China (including Manchuria and Tibet)
- Russia (Vladivostok oblast' and Buryatia)
- Japan (Tsushima and Kik, temporarily)
Chagatai Khanate[edit | edit source]
- China (Xinjiang province)
- Kazakhstan (east)
Golden Horde[edit | edit source]
- Russia (southern and western territories)
Ilkhanate[edit | edit source]
- Turkey (east)
Armed forces[edit | edit source]
Great Mongol Ulus was the strongest empire in all 13th century. By establishing order at their homeland, conquering China, Persia, Central Asia, Rus and Korea they managed to create one of the most mobile and strongest armed forces at that ages. Every defeated power was a fuel for another conquers, inventions of those countries like gunpowder, catapults, warships or machine crossbows were expansion for traditional military doctrine, based on cavalry archers. Thanks by China they started to use siege machines, while from Korea they learned much about navy.
During invasion of Tsushima Mongols started to learn much about samurais, their war doctrine, honor and also about Japanese culture, language and art. Thanks by Straw Hats they started to assimilate their fight style. After Jin poisoned Mongols' Kumis at Shimura Castle Mongol Army started to poison their arrows.
Trivia[edit | edit source]
- In Japanese records, the Mongol Empire is also sometimes referred to as the Gen (元).
- In Ghost of Tsushima, the Mongol characters speak Mongolian with a modern accent (based in the modern country of Mongolia). Back then, the Mongols mainly wrote in the classical Mongol script (that runs vertically), Chinese characters, and Phags-pa.
- Mongols invaded Japanese Empire twice - first at the year 1274 and later after conquering Chinese Song dynasty, in the year 1281. In both times they were scattered by powerful typhoon, named by Japans as Kamikaze (神風, Divine Wind). This name was later used for suicidal air attacks by Japanese pilots during Second World War.
- In Japanese war against Mongol Empire is known as Genkō (元寇).
- During invasion of Tsushima Mongols used in combat gunpowder. It was first country in history who did that.
- According to sources, Tsushima - during 1274 - was attacked by over 30 thousand Mongol soldiers.
- Unlike in Asia, Mongols had peaceful relations with European states, but they were hostile towards Islamic ones.